Zirconiu

40
Zr
Grupă
4
Perioadă
5
Bloc
d
Protoni
Electroni
Neutroni
40
40
51
Proprietăți Generale
Număr atomic
40
Masă atomică
91,224
Numar de masa
91
Categorie
Metale de tranziție
Culoare
Argint
Radioactive
Nu
Din persană zargun, auriu
Structură cristalină
Sistemul Hexagonal
Istoric
Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka.

Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube.

Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925.
Electroni pe nivelul de energie
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Configurație electronică
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia
Proprietăți Fizice
Fază
Solid
Densitate
6,506 g/cm3
Punct de topire
2128,15 K | 1855 °C | 3371 °F
Punct de fierbere
4682,15 K | 4409 °C | 7968,2 °F
Energie de fuziune
21 kJ/mol
Energie de evaporare
580 kJ/mol
Căldură specifică
0,278 J/g·K
Abundența în scoarța Pământului
0,013%
Abundența în Univers
5×10-6%
Two
Credite imagine: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Two samples of crystal bar showing different surface textures as well as a highly pure zirconium cube for comparison
CAS Number
7440-67-7
PubChem CID Number
23995
Proprietăți Atomice
Rază atomică
160 pm
Rază de covalență
175 pm
Electronegativitate
1,33 (Scara lui Pauling)
Potențial de ionizare
6,6339 eV
Volum molar
14,0 cm3/mol
Conductivitate termică
0,227 W/cm·K
Număr de oxidare
1, 2, 3, 4
Aplicații
Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion.

Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent.

Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
Izotopi
Izotopi stabili
90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr
Izotopi instabili
78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 93Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110Zr