Toriu

90
Th
Grupă
n/a
Perioadă
7
Bloc
f
Protoni
Electroni
Neutroni
90
90
142
Proprietăți Generale
Număr atomic
90
Masă atomică
232,03806
Numar de masa
232
Categorie
Actinide
Culoare
Argint
Radioactive
Da
Numit după Thor, zeul scandinav al războiului
Structură cristalină
Față Centrată Cubic
Istoric
Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1828, in Stockholm, Sweden.

Thorium was first observed to be radioactive in 1898, independently, by Polish-French physicist Marie Curie and German chemist Gerhard Carl Schmidt.

The crystal bar process was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 to produce high-purity metallic thorium.
Electroni pe nivelul de energie
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Configurație electronică
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Th
Thorium fuel research is continuing in several countries including the USA and India
Proprietăți Fizice
Fază
Solid
Densitate
11,7 g/cm3
Punct de topire
2115,15 K | 1842 °C | 3347,6 °F
Punct de fierbere
5061,15 K | 4788 °C | 8650,4 °F
Energie de fuziune
16 kJ/mol
Energie de evaporare
530 kJ/mol
Căldură specifică
0,113 J/g·K
Abundența în scoarța Pământului
0,0006%
Abundența în Univers
4×10-8%
The
Credite imagine: Wikimedia Commons (NASA/ESA/JHU/R.Sankrit & W.Blair)
The Earth's thorium originated in the death throes of ancient stars
CAS Number
7440-29-1
PubChem CID Number
23960
Proprietăți Atomice
Rază atomică
179 pm
Rază de covalență
206 pm
Electronegativitate
1,3 (Scara lui Pauling)
Potențial de ionizare
6,3067 eV
Volum molar
19,9 cm3/mol
Conductivitate termică
0,54 W/cm·K
Număr de oxidare
2, 3, 4
Aplicații
Thorium is used to coat tungsten filaments in light bulbs.

It is also used in its oxide form in gas tungsten arc welding to increase the high-temperature strength of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability.

Thorium-magnesium alloys are used in the aerospace industry for aircraft engines.
Thorium is highly radioactive
Izotopi
Izotopi stabili
232Th
Izotopi instabili
209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238Th